What do you mean it’s not Teflon??

A Comprehensive Guide To Non-Stick Cookware

T-fal Teflon 12.5 inch Nonstick Fry Pan

Are you wondering about the ‘kind of Teflon’ on your nonstick cookware?

Teflon, a non-stick coating brand owned by the company DuPont has become synonymous with non-stick coatings on cookware. However, not all non-stick coatings are Teflon and if you are wondering or not sure about the coating on your cookware, this guide will help you figure it out.

Non-stick coatings for cookware are typically fluoropolymer plastic (PTFE) based or silicone based. Pots and pans are usually coated with PTFE coatings, while Silicone based coatings are mainly used in kitchen utensils and bakeware.

With the recent publicity about the safety of PTFE based non-stick cookware, there has been a spate of Ceramic based non-stick cookware on the market (also called ‘healthy cookware’ because ceramics are free of PTFE and PFOA).

Firstly, what is Teflon, PTFE and PFOA?

Teflon is the brand name for a plastic product called polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic Acid) is another chemical that is used in the process of making PTFE. It is NOT the same as PTFE.

PFOA is burned off during the process and no significant amount remains in the final product. Previously, all nonstick coating manufacturers used PFOA in the manufacture of nonstick. However, PFOA is considered a pollutant and a toxic substance and now, under the stewardship of the Environmental Protection Agency, most of the reputable non-stick coating manufacturers are producing coatings made without PFOA. This includes Teflon.

So when you see a cookware advertising ‘PFOA’ free, it usually means the PTFE was made without the use of the chemical PFOA in the manufacturing process. [Tweet This!]

Is PTFE/Teflon safe?

Ordinarily, Teflon is an inert substance and even if a piece of nonstick flakes off and ends up inside you, it will simply pass through your system. You might be interested to know that because of its non reactive nature, Teflon is even used in joint replacements!

Only when it is heated to a high temperature like 500 degree F does Teflon start to deteriorate and release fumes which have been found harmful for birds and cause flu like symptoms in humans.

In ordinary use, pans are not usually heated to such a high temperature. So in a nutshell, yes, Teflon or PTFE is safe as long as you are diligent about not heating an empty pan or cooking on too high a temperature.

The objective here is not to take a stance for or against PTFE or Teflon. It is to provide information so you know what you are getting and can see through the marketing clutter of different manufacturers.

So in most cases:

  1. Unless it specifies ceramic or silicon based non-stick, non-stick cookware contains some form of PTFE or related plastic compound.
  2. When they say ‘it’s not Teflon’, they are right. Teflon is a brand name. But in most cases it will contain some form of PTFE. Yes, even Swiss Diamond.
  3. And when they say PFOA free, it means that particular chemical wasn’t used in the manufacture of PTFE. But it’s still PTFE.

If PTFE is a concern for you, there are several ceramic options available (see below). Keep in mind that ceramic based non-stick coatings have been found to be much less durable than plastic based coatings.

For our complete review of the safety and durability of Ceramic Coated Cookware, read our article Ceramic Coated Cookware Safety Secrets No one Will Tell You.

Here is a list of nonstick coatings that your favorite brands are using.

PTFE based:

1. Manufacturer: DuPont

Brand name of non-stick coating: Teflon

Popular Brands that use it: T-Fal, Jamie Oliver by T-Fal, Tramontina, IKEA cookware

About the coating: DuPont’s line up of non-stick coatings in order of increasing price and durability is as follows. Also including popular brands that use it.

Teflon Classic – for occasional cooks who need convenience. 2 layer coating, minimum 25 micron thickness. Popular brands include Tramontina Everyday(R), Mainstays Non-Stick Cookware, IKEA KAVALKAD series and GRILLA grill pan.

Teflon Xtra – for convenience in regular use. 3 layer coating. Popular brands include Tramontina Select

Teflon Select – for busy cooks who need everyday durable performance. 3 layer coating, minimum 35 micron thickness. Popular brands include TeChef Art Pan, IKEA SKÄNKA series.

Teflon Platinum – for quality oriented avid cooks who use and abuse their cookware a lot. 3 layer coating, minimum 40 micron thickness. Popular brands include TeChef Blooming Flower fry pan or 11″ Wok

Teflon Platinum Plus – for avid cooks who want the ultimate in non-stick durability, scratch resistance and performance. 50% more scratch resistant than Teflon Platinum. Popular brands include IKEA 365+ and MEDALJ series.

Other special Teflon® coatings:

Teflon® with Radiance Technology – induction compatible, for busy, everyday cooks

Teflon® with Infinity Technology – for busy, everyday cooks

Teflon® ScratchGuard Ultra – scratch resistance for avid chefs

Teflon® Professional with MetalGuard – scratch resistance for avid chefs

Teflon® Professional – most durable nonstick coating, designed for professionals with high standards. Popular brands include IKEA FAVORIT and STIL series.

2. Manufacturer: DuPont

Brand name of non-stick coating: Autograph 2

Popular Brands that use it: Circulon Hard Anodized, Anolon Hard Anodized

About the coating: DuPont’s top of the line non-stick coating, designed for ultra durable performance and non-stick release.

3. Manufacturer: Whitford

Brand name of non-stick coating: Eterna

Popular Brands that use it: Cuisinart DSA-11 Dishwasher Safe Hard-Anodized Cookware

About the coating: Whitford’s highest quality non-stick coating. They claim it is the world’s longest lasting non-stick.

4. Manufacturer: Whitford

Brand name of non-stick coating: Excalibur

Popular Brands that use it: Joyce Chen Pans, Helen Chen Pans, Cuisinox.

About the coating: Usually for stainless steel application.

5. Manufacturer: Whitford

Brand name of non-stick coating: Eclipse

Popular Brands that use it: Rachael Ray Hard Anodized, KitchenAid Hard Anodized.

About the coating: It is a reinforced coating, engineered to outlast all other reinforced coatings (according to the company) and is applied in 3 layers. Company gives it a 10 out of 10 overall rating.

6. Manufacturer: Whitford

Brand name of non-stick coating: QuanTanium

Popular Brands that use it: Cuisinart Hard Anodized Cookware

About the coating: Reinforced with titanium. Company gives it an 8 out of 10 rating.

7. Manufacturer: Whitford

Brand name of non-stick coating: Xylan

Popular Brands that use it: Joyce Chen woks, Helen Chen woks

About the coating: For the budget cookware. Company gives it a 4-6 out of 10 rating.

Ceramic Based:

1. Manufacturer: WEILBURGER Coatings Germany

Brand name of non-stick coating: Greblon

Popular Brands that use it: Ozeri pans, Healthy Legend, Josef Strauss

About the coating: Ceramic based non-stick coating

2. Manufacturer: Thermolon Corporation

Brand name of non-stick coating: Thermolon

Popular Brands that use it: Zwilling J.A. Henckells Thermolon coated cookware, GreenPan

About the coating: a ceramic type of coating that is based on Sol-Gel technology. Sol-Gel means materials formed from small inorganic (mineral) particles suspended in Solution that Gel together to form an inorganic matrix. Apart from being PTFE and PFOA free, it is highly temperature resistant (up to 450°C), no toxic fumes released when over-heated and is extremely hard.

3. Manufacturer: Wellman Engineering

Brand name of non-stick coating: EcoLon

Popular Brands that use it: NeoFlam

About the coating: a ceramic-glass reinforced Nylon coating.

Updated Aug 2020

4. Manufacturer: Caraway Cookware (Cookware Advisor top pick)

Ceramic non-stick coating: Proprietary, read review here

About the coating: high performance ceramic based non-stick coating

For a more in-depth analysis of Ceramic coated non-stick cookware, click here

This list is by no means exhaustive and I will keep adding to it. So keep checking. Or let me know if there’s a particular set you are trying to figure out.


Disclosure: I get commissions for purchases made through links in this post.

214 thoughts on “What do you mean it’s not Teflon??”

  1. Terrific post! Really helpful. Thank you!
    I’m trying to research Wilton’s silicone polyester coating. I can’t find any information regarding. Do you know what it is? My understanding is that other silicone based coatings, such as those used by USA Pans, Chicago Metallic, do have PTFE as a component. Am I wrong about this?

    • hi Brad, so glad you found the article useful!
      As far as I know, USA Pans and Chicago Metallic have both options in their pans – with PTFE and without. As far as silicone polyester coating, from what I can find out, it doesn’t contain PTFE.
      Hope that helps!

    • Hi Spencer, since I have no idea of what such a DIY process would involve, I’m afraid I can’t comment on it. As far as I know, once the non-stick coating on a pan wears off, its time to discard the pan and get a new one.

  2. I have a Tefal fry pan induction bottom interior non stick. On bottom is written stainless steel induction technology. The inside has a red circle in middle of frypan with a ‘T ‘. Does one get toxins from these when cooking?

    • Hi Elaine, the stainless steel on the outside bottom is what allows the Tefal pan to be induction compatible.
      The inside is a nonstick coating which is PTFE or Teflon. Teflon pans, if you’ve read in the article above, are safe to use on medium temperatures and don’t release toxins into food. When overheated however, they can release fumes which are an irritant to humans. So as long as you don’t overheat the pan, I think its fine to use.

  3. Hi, there is a new Japanese sandwich maker called 4w1h hot sandwich. I was excited to pursue finding one, until I read ‘fluororesin’ is in the interior where it touches the bread. The translation does not say it is any of the Ps-free, so would you just assume it is toxic? You put this gadget over a flame, so it gets very high heat. I had hoped being made in Japan it would be better than something similar coming from China. Thank you for any thoughts or feedback you may have

    • Hi Susan, if the inside has fluororesin, that would just imply a teflon (ptfe) type of coating. I wouldn’t assume its toxic just because of that, regardless of if its made in China or Japan. If you use it over medium heat instead of the high heat you’ve described, I don’t see how it would be much different than using a teflon coated fry pan..?
      Just my 2 cents worth but in the end, its a judgement call you have to feel comfortable with!

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  5. And what’s the lead level in those “safer” ceramic coatings? Without real regulations in this country they can sell you anything. California is a little better. What the heck is wrong with cast iron? Cast iron, pyro glass, stainless if used carefully, maybe lead free stoneware and ceramics if you can find them (never trust the old stuff). Go look at lead safe mamma if you have doubts about this.

  6. Hi there, I liked this article, it is simple and comprehensive.
    I don’t use any coated cookware, I use only stainless steel ones, but when it comes to muffin pans, it is hard or impossible to find stainless steel.

  7. All the research looks good that Thermolon is safe, but the technology is so brand new, there may be things they just don’t know yet. To be on the safe side with your bird, keep him away from the proximity of any possible fumes when you are cooking, and don’t heat your pans above 450 degrees.

  8. i am just about to purchase nonstick door liners for my 5 door AGA oven. I have tried to make enquires about what the non stick material is – PPG industial coatings make it for coating kitchenware. Their website say “they are formulated without perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and adhere to UL® listings, NSF approvals, FDA, REACH and other worldwide regulatory standards.” They do not say if their nonstick coating is made using PFA or PTFE. I ask because as this will line the inside of the doors of the 5 door oven, they will be heated to a constant temperature as this oven is never turned off. There are very negative reports about high heat. the Roasting oven is at a constant heat of 230C/450F. This is the threshold for it starting to break down according to reports – I’m very concerned. Can you help me discover what PPG Industrial coatings non stick coating is made The other ovens are for baking and simmering and are lower in heat.

  9. I was wondering if you could help me. I recently bought some Masterclass premium nonstick cookware from a discount store bc it was induction ready. It is NOT labeled PTFE (or PFOA, cadmium, or lead free). Also, I have not been able to find anything online about this product. What do your resources have to say?

  10. We’ve been very fortunate as our lovebird is near the kitchen (it’s an open design, family room/kitchen) and he is probably 13 years old. I use mostly stainless. Wondering about Ninja® Foodi™ NeverStick™ Cookware? I have a feeling it would not be a good choice for us. This is very informative. Thank you!

    • Hi Kelly, I had to do a bit of digging for this one. From a listing for a Ninja Foodi Neverstick pan on Amazon, I see this: “completely free of PFOA, PFAS, cadmium, and lead”. Which would imply that it is a ceramic nonstick coating. I.e. will not break down at higher temperatures and emit fumes that would harm your bird. Based on that it seems like a decent choice for you.

  11. Hi, I have seen a comment by a PTFE pan manufacturer talking about primer (a major Chinese OEM for many famous brands). The problem is about Polyamide-imide (PAI) used in primer which will produce Primary Aromatic Amines (PAA) at high heat. In addition, some PTFE surfactants will result in PAHs. To prevent PAHs, they have a slight costly process but it is not always followed in order to save costs, and some brands don’t require them to perform PAHs checks. How do you think about the risks from these factors?

    • Hi Frank, all PTFE coatings have an adhesive in the Primer (Base Coat) to make them stick to the metal substrate. PAI, used in primers of PTFE-type coatings can start to degrade from around 500oF. It is possible that at extremely high temperatures, where the food would also be burned to a crisp, that PAAs would be produced. This is why the max use temperature of PTFE-type coatings is commonly stated in the USA as being 500oF. In Europe, they’re more conservative. The German BfR (Federal Risk Assessment Institute) states a lower maximum use temperature for PTFE-type: 230oC (446oF) long-term or short term (e.g. up to 15 mins) at 250oC (482oF).

      Risk factors? Well, Good Housekeeping’s survey in November 2007 showed that: an empty lightweight pan preheated on high heat could reach 507oF in 1 and 3/4 minutes; Hamburgers cooked at high heat in a heavy pan for 8 minutes resulted in the pan reaching 577oF; a steak cooked on high for 10 mins in a lightweight pan resulted in a temperature of 656oF. This helps put the risk factors into perspective – even when careful about observing the use instruction with PTFE-type nonstick, the margin for error is not that high. Of course, cooking oils also create toxic fumes at such cooking temperatures. This is usually why small birds may die when kept near a kitchen.

      Ceramic Nonstick don’t require adhesive primers or surfactants, and they offer a much higher safety margin with regards to temperature.

      Or you could consider uncoated stainless steel, but not if you have a Nickel allergy.

      Nothing is perfect – take your pick. Or don’t eat fried foods. Pots seldom reach dangerous temperatures as they’re generally filled with liquid which limits the temperature that the pots can reach.

  12. so in response to your question about the griddle, what do you mean by “not heating an empty pan”? we usually heat the pan before putting pancake mixture on it, for instance….

    • If you’re brushing the pan with some oil/butter and preheating for a few seconds, that’s fine. But if you heat an empty nonstick pan it gets super hot very quickly – i.e. reaches a temperature over 500F at which point the coating starts breaking down and emitting fumes.

    • As The Cookware Advisor right points out, empty fry pans, particularly on a gas or Induction stove, can quickly exceed the maximum use temperature of PTFE-type coatings. Ceramic Nonstick gives you some extra margin. It is OK to heat an empty pan for around 30 s to hep drive off any water before adding the cooking oil. To know when a pan has reached as suitable pre-heat temperature, one trick is add a tiny amount of butter. It should melt and even sizzle, but it shouldn’t be turning brown.

    • Hello, the All Clad NS 1 griddle has a ptfe based nonstick coating…. as long as its used as directed i.e not heating an empty pan and never over heating (which breaks down the nonstick coating, emitting fumes) I would consider it ok to use.

  13. What can you say about this pringform Pan?
    Is it safe or not?
    Nordic Ware 51842 Leakproof Springform Pan, 7 Inch, Charcoal
    Which advice do you have? Thank you!

  14. Hi. Thank you for such a useful site nformation! What do you think of the cover DuraCeramic?
    I want to buy a useful waffle iron, I looked after this option Breville VST072 DuraCeramic Waffle Maker.
    Does it contain teflon, pfoa and ptfe? Thanks!

  15. We also just watched Dark Waters and we’ve been trying to find information on our Never-Stick Stainless Steel Farberware Millennium Cookware we’ve had since 1994. I tried calling Farberware and was disconnected and have had no luck finding any information on line. Are you familiar with what’s in their “Never-Stick” coating?

  16. Hello! I have a Jennaire cooktop, and one of the grill inserts is peeling. Apparently these grills are coated with Excalibur. Should I be concerned? Jennair tech tells me that they “have no information that this is dangerous.”

    • If coated with Excalibur, then presumably the grill insert is made from Aluminum? Is this correct? If so, are there are significant areas of Aluminum metal exposed? Also, are you’re grilling with any acidic foods (e.g. tomato) where juices may contact the metal? If the answers to all these are yes, then you may wish to consider replacing the inserts. If still within the guarantee period, you might also ask the supplier why Excalibur is peeling when it is considered to be one of the toughest coating systems around.

  17. Hello

    What is your option about Hex Clad cookware?
    It isn’t supposed to be coated with anything but the color of the pan does change over time.
    It isn’t no -stick but it’s stick resistant if “properly seasoned.”
    Thank you for your response.

    • Hi Lorraine, I wasn’t familiar with this brand but did a quick search – Hex Clad is triply stainless steel cookware with a layer of aluminum in the middle. It does have a textured nonstick surface, what they call ‘peaks and valleys’… the peaks are stainless steel and the valleys are ceramic based non-stick with some PTFE. This way you get the best of both worlds, stainless steel and nonstick. So it does have somewhat of a non-stick coating. See diagram here: https://hexclad.com/pages/hexclad-science and also check their FAQs where they talk about the nonstick coating. By its very nature, ceramic based nonstick is low stick, not completely nonstick hence the need to season.

      Aside from all those facts, it looks like a solid piece of cookware with a unique hybrid of nonstick and stainless steel.

  18. Hello,
    I just watched Dark Waters last night and am concerned now about the safety of my cookware, none of which seems to be non-stick, but I want to be sure it is not only PFOA-free, but also PTFE-free. I cook with heavy, dark Calphalon pots and pans I received when I got married in 1987, Mauviel copper pots and pans collected over the last 5 years and a large Demeyere frying pan that’s probably 10-15 years old. Should I be worried about any of these pieces I use? I am an enthusiastic cook and cook often for family and friends, so I want to make sure I’m not harming anyone with my cooking. Also, does PTFE pose a risk to consumers? Thank you for any information.

    • The main danger with PTFE-type non-stick is if you overheat it. The maximum use temperature of PTFE is 500oF/260oC. The hotter it gets above that temperature, the more toxic the fumes get. Searing steaks well will probably mean that you overheat your pan. However, if this is not your style of cooking and, if you keep the heat low, then you are not in the danger zone. Th trouble is that most people might not realize how hot the pan can get if pre-heated before adding oil and food.

      The second problem is in making the non-stick PTFE coating (dispersion types) in the first place. The waste PFOA (and now the PFOA replacements), as mentioned in Dark Waters, was handled irresponsibly by some coating manufacturers. This resulted in PFOA (and now other, similar materials) getting into the environment, the drinking water, the food chain and thereby into our blood. However, as your pans were made a long time ago, you are not adding to the environmental contamination problem by keeping your pans. In fact, to throw them away is a waste of the raw materials and energy that were used in their manufacture. Personally, I would keep them. For the Demeyere pans that are 10-15 years old, I would be surprized if they were coated. But for ones with a non-stick coating, which is likely to be PTFE-type, just be careful not to overheat them!

      • You are talking about Forever Chemicals…so explain forever chemicals to everyone, and then explain how ALL of us are already exposed to and infected, so to speak, with teflon poisening?? You are making it sound really safe…it is not. People should be thriwing put that cookware, teflon is in so much more….

  19. Hello,
    I work for an environmental non-profit and urge you to not advertise any type of PFAS chemical- please look into it before advising people to buy it. The Intercept has done extensive research about this and so did EarthJustice, NRDC, etc. Other ways to educate yourself is by watching “Dark Waters” that just came out.
    These chemicals are NOT safe; and are not banned because chemical companies regulate themselves. There’s a loophole in the juridicial system and people like you and me are the ones suffering the consequences (cancers, etc). I urge you to advertise instead products that are NOT non-stick, such as stainless steel or cast iron and please do your research about these highly toxic chemicals.

    • Hi Marie, what is your view on Ceramic Non-stick (Sol-Gel), which does not use any PFAS material at any stage of its manufacture or application and, therefore, does not contribute to the contamination of the environment or the food chain?

  20. Hi,
    I would like to know about double non- stick coating in new Calphalon Space Saving cookware 8 piece sold in Costco please.

    It does not say any part of the box what is the coating made of in this set.

    Highly appreciate your response ,
    Smiles, Kat

    • hi Katherine, Calphalon nonstick cookware uses a PTFE (i.e. like Teflon, just not that brand name of nonstick) based 3-layer coating which is their ‘proprietary formulation’. As far as I know their nonstic kis supplied by the company GMM nonstick coatings. Hope that helps!

  21. I was poisoned by PTFE through jaw implants. I am concerned PFOA is just another term to make those of us afraid of the same chemical getting in our system. All comments seem to point to that fact. The wording is too unclear and I thought all use of anything involved with PTFE or under different name was going to be banned from use. Was that a false promise?

    • Hi Barbara, sorry to hear about your experience. There is, and never was, any movement to ban PTFE, which is a type of polymer (plastic material). PTFE itself is inert and is unlikely to have poisoned you. It could be that what got you is a chemical additive that is used in the production of water-based PTFE coatings. It used to be PFOA that was used. This is what was phased out by the international coating suppliers under the US EPA’s voluntary stewardship program. PTFE remains. However, the role of PFOA has been replaced by other additives instead. They have a similar toxicological profile, they are persistent in the environment and are bio-accumulative. In short, the villain has been replaced by the devil. Anyway, PTFE remains for now, and it is a popular coating for Nonstick Cookware. The main problem comes when it’s overheated. Then it can break down and release a cocktail of toxins. One of the breakdown products includes PFOA. If you want to avoid highly fluorinated materials like PFOA (and its replacements), then Ceramic Non-stick or uncoated stainless steel are some of the options.

  22. Hi and thank you for this information!

    We recently purchased a set of “Ayesha” Modern Tradition cookware which is a porcelain Enamel that has a non stick Surface but we don’t know which type.

    Any insights into this would be most welcome.

    Best wishes.

    • hi Ben, I looked at the product listing, it is aluminum cookware with a porcelain enamel exterior, as you’ve described, and a “PFOA-free nonstick interior”. Anytime the descriptor ‘PFOA-free’ is used without specifically saying ceramic or PTFE free, it usually means it is a PTFE aka Teflon type non-stick. Hope that helps!

  23. I really appreciate the information. Can you throw more light on the difference between die cast aluminium, forged aluminium and pressed aluminium cookwares?

    • Die cast is made from molten Aluminum that sets in a mold. When it cools down, there are much less tensions in the material. Base stability tends to be very good. Cast Aluminum is generally perceived as a high quality product. Deep drawn (pressed) is where a disc of Aluminum is pressed into the shape of a pot or pan. The Aluminum material is stretched during the drawing process, leaving more tensions in the material. Deep drawn is generally of thinner gage. Forged Aluminum is normally pressed from thicker gage, and it is compressed with force (think of a Blacksmith with his hammer, except it is done by forging machines), making for what is a very durable, high quality product.

  24. Thank you very much for the information. Your research is very insightful and easy to understand. I would like to know the difference between marble, granite and ceramic cookware? All they all equally safe for us to use?

  25. Hello, I’m curious about how Scanpan’s Stratanium coating and Happycall’s Plasma IH range would compare with the others in the list

  26. Hi! Thanks for sharing your research over here! Very insightful contents. I’ve been checking here for some years on new comments and information.

    I am currently using a T-fal Ingenio Neo for everyday cooking for almost ten months. Bought it in Japan and the pan itself is made in France with titanium coating. Was sold due to the removable handle. I tend to turn on the heat on an empty pan since I’m reducing oil in my dishes when I’m cooking fatty meat such as bacon and oily fishes. I have never used high heat in all these years, the highest I would go is only medium. Have also always clean up with a kitchen towel and set aside to cool before washing. Is it considered safer than others since there’s titanium coating and the durability is supposedly to be higher?

    If not, would it be better if I switched to Le Creuset TNS or All-Clad d5 Hybrid? How about WMF ProfiSelect or ProfiResist pans? I don’t mind paying a little more for good and safer cookware.

    Thank you in advance~

    • hello Wai, thanks for your comment and question.
      From what I can gather, the pans you are using are no safer or worse than any other good quality non-stick pans. The titanium would definitely fortify and add to the durability of the non-stick but at the end of the day, all the pans you’ve listed contain some form of PTFE in their non-stick and based on your usage habits, I think you are quite safe using ANY of them, if non-stick is your pan of choice.
      Just my 2 cents worth, don’t know if that helps any..?

    • hi Zach, its hard to say but based on what you’re describing, if you didn’t smell or see anything, chances are, the coating is intact. Firstly the pan wasn’t empty. Secondly and in my experience, when a non-stick pan gets over-heated, you can literally see the coating burning off, since it will emit fumes that are visible. Beyond that, you would have to be the best judge and see if the coating looks visibly damaged.

    • Hi Zach. The TOTAL Food Release System is DuPont Autograph, which is PTFE. Such coatings can degrade if exposed to high heat. However, if the oil in the pan was still liquid, the chances are that the temperature actually didn’t get high enough to cause significant damage to the PTFE, although the adhesive in the Primer may have ben damaged, so watch for signs of the coating peeling off. If the adhesion is still good and, if the non-stick still works (e.g. possible to fry an egg without using oil, but you can still remove the egg without too much difficulty with the aid of a wooden spatula), then the coating should still be good. You can check the maximum temperature that the pan has ever reached in its lifetime by the color-tinting of the stainless steel. See the chart at the bottom of the British Stainless Steel Association’s webpage:
      If the color of the metal of the exterior base is dark brown or approaching purple, then it’s better to replace your pan. The temperatures shown, by the way, are in degrees-C. Multiply by 1.8 and then add 32 to convert to degrees-F.

  27. Hi,

    I like this post! I have one question though, I accidentally overheated my circulon stainless steel pan for like 1 day… low heat, some oil in it. The heat was low that I didn’t even smell anything or hear anything until next day when I got close to stove I felt some warm air flow.. (still some oil in it, but the tip of turner was darken)

    After it got cool, I hand washed it and was able to remove I guess most of the stains on it. So my question is that is it still safe/healthy to use this pan? is the coating still good?

    Thank you!

  28. So i just got the Misen non stick (new kid on the block for cookware and knives) and the use the DuPont Platinum 3 Layer. Now for some reason, I tried the Ceramic non stick high ends ones from Zwilling and Cuisinart and they just don’t hold up well. So far the Misen are good but its only been like 2 months..I just hate that i went with Dupont and not realizing only after i bought them (misen just said it was platinum 3 layer and PFOA i rushed to buy). Is it at least better/safer than the old Teflon I assume?
    However, at this point, my wife thinks we should just live with stainless steel and forget about non stick all together.

    • hi David, I wouldn’t be so hard on myself :)
      Platinum is a decent quality 3 layer coating that should last you a while provided you use it with care (eg don’t heat an empty pan, never heat on high, don’t use abrasives to clean etc). Is is safer or better than the old Teflon? It’s still Teflon so you know the answer to that. But I personally don’t think Teflon is unsafe, again provided you use with the care mentioned above.

  29. Hi I just bought one of David Burke bakeware in rose gold. It says is free from PFOA and PTFE but you can clearly see a spray coating all over the bakeware. Just worry if this spray coat is food safe and nontoxic as I bought it to bake my little ones favorite muffins ?

    • hi Katie, I did a quick search, seems David Burke bakeware pans are coated with Xylan. Xylan for bakeware is silicone based, therefore ptfe and pfoa free. Xylan is made by Whitford, one of the leading suppliers of non-stick coatings. So i would feel quite comfortable using the pan.
      Hope your little one enjoys the muffins!

  30. This article is such an eye opener, thank you. I wanted to know if All-Clad Hard Anodized Nonstick 17-Piece Cookware Set were safe to use. It does state that they are PFOA free, but wanted to know more info. I’m trying to be more pro active and keeping myself and my family safe from any toxins since I was diagnosed with breast cancer last year. Happy to say I am survivor!!

    • Hi Janie, first of all, congratulations on being a cancer survivor!
      The All-clad set uses ptfe (aka teflon type) for its non-stick coating. Based on my research, if used properly, non-stick ptfe based coatings on pans don’t pose a threat. As for pfoa, most, if not all, non-stick cookware is now made without the use of pfoa.

      So is it safe to use? Generally speaking, yes. But you have to be the better judge for your health situation.

  31. I am looking at some cookie baking sheets from a well-known company called King Arthur Flour in Vermont. There are two kinds listed…one set is not coated and one has a “safe non-stick” coating on them. They also have many other baking pans for sale…most made in the USA. Additionally there are many pages of American -made stoneware for breads and such…some made of unglazed porous stoneware. Perhaps these might be safe and healthy. What do you think? Their number is 1 800 827-6836.

    • Hello Sandra, I’m not familiar with this company’s products but if it is actual stoneware, I would think its quite inert and non-reactive with food and therefore safe.

  32. Sadly, I think anyone considering a traditional Teflon or Teflon-like coating should watch the documentary “The Devil You Know” on Netflix before making that decision. It’s the full story and touches on the current coating chemicals as well.

    Although one of the dangerous chemicals has been removed from the current coatings, it’s replacement (Gen-X) appears to be just as bad, if not worse.

    Everyone is free to make their own decisions on the safety of these coatings, but personally I will never use one of these pans ever again.

    Thankfully, their are other options.

    • Hi Tracy

      You can check what I posted on November 14th last year under Ceramic Coated Cookware Safety Secrets That No One Will Tell You!

      The PTFE itself on your cookware is not the enemy provided you don’t overheat it. Rather it’s the process by which the Non-stick (called PTFE dispersions) is made. It involves use of highly fluorinated chemicals. These are persistent and never get decomposed once in the environment. When these chemicals escape from the production plants, they find their way through the water and food chain and into our blood. These chemicals are bio-accumulative and have harmful effects on the body. They can stay in our blood for years.

      The Devil We Know tells how one particular company decided to handle such chemicals in their waste. The same thing happened at their plant with PFOA (C8) as recently happened with GenX:


      Another documentary that’s currently being prepared for release can be found here:


      All PTFE non-stick manufacturers have their own particular versions of the C8 replacements. It is not these chemicals that are bad, it’s the way that they are handled and how the waste gets treated – either responsibly or carelessly.

      PTFE-coated fry pans themselves are not the enemy.

      The same comment applies to the majority of consumer goods that are made from plastics (i.e. polymers) where highly fluorinated materials are used to assist the manufacturing processes.

      If we still want to use these goods, then the regulators, retailers and consumers need to insist on manufacturers EITHER moving away from fluorinated processing aids OR at least to ensuring that they are not discharging such persistent materials into the water that we drink and the air that we breath. This is what is called for in the Madrid Statement, which is signed by more than 200 respected scientists from around the world:


    • Just watched that documentary this evening. Probably the saddest thing I’ve ever seen. And I’m feeling just like you. Anything made by a company like Dupont should end up in the garbage and they should be out of business. I’m more than a little concerned about the reply from Chris below who seems wholly unconcerned about the way Dupont studied, created, and implemented the use of PFOA in Teflon. DuPont poisoned the water supply. This is not a consumer issue, this is a public safety issue.

  33. Let me first say thank you for providing this information for the public in a well organized way. Secondly I appreciate that you responded to many of the comments and questions (many don’t).
    I have the Cuisinart French Classic Tri-Ply. I have the Steel set but also bought two of the non-stick pans. I was curious if they had Quantanium or Enerma. Since they were “made in France”, I didn’t know where to look for information. https://www.bedbathandbeyond.com/store/product/cuisinart-reg-french-classic-tri-ply-stainless-12-inch-nonstick-skillet/1018606275?skuId=18606275&registryId=543671446

      • Looking at the Cuisinart webpage, there is something distinctly odd. The coating is indeed claimed to be Quantanium, which is a toughened 3-layer PTFE from Whitford. The description incorrectly goes on to state that the cookware is “Oven safe to 550ºF (288ºC)”. However, it is universally accepted that the Maximum Use Temperature of PTFE-type non-stick is only up to 500ºF (260ºC). If you download the Care & Use Instructions:


        you will see that under “Cooking Temperature in the Oven”, the correct temperature of 500°F (260°C) is stated. But the product information first shown is misleading.

        • Good catch on the discrepancy Chris! Hopefully its a typo in the product information since, you’re right, its generally recommended to heat a ptfe pan to a max of no more than 500F.

  34. Hi there and thank you for the thorough information on the different aspects and kinds of non- stick pans.. I have a friend who has Flavorstone pans for everyday cooking and I was wondering whether you have information about chemicals in their coatings?

  35. Hi there. Firstly, I love your information! Thank you for this wonderful reference. I’ve learned a lot. I just purchased a whole set of cookware before reading this, and I am happy to find out that I think it’s ok! I wanted nonstick for sure (for sauces, eggs, and general heating up). I am hoping this set will last 10 or 15 years. I only use plastic/rubber utensils, never cook past medium heat and I generally hand wash them. Can you give me your thoughts on if this is a quality set? Paderno Classic Non-Stick Cookware Set. Thank you!

    • Hi Joan, thanks for visiting and for your comment, I’m glad you found the information useful!
      I know of Paderno to be a higher end, good quality cookware based out of Canada. This particular set I believe has Quantanium as the non-stick coating which is a tough, 3 layer and durable non-stick. So I do think you’ll get several years of use out of this set!

  36. Hello!
    Do you know about the other option: carbonsteel pans, seasoned? From De Buyer? I have several. No more chemicals!!

  37. The new technology seems to be to embed some hard mineral or platinum in the teflon. It prevents utensils, even metal ones, from penetrating and scratching the surface. Dupont has teflon platinum and platinum plus and competitors have their versions. I am tired of only getting a year or two out of my sautee pans and would love to see a review of these reenforced coatings. Do they work or just a gimmick? I have recently turned to the original non stick, well seasoned cast iron. It it lasts forener and the surface can always be redone.

  38. Hi people! What do you thing about Stonerose cook for Bisetti? Contained PFTE? But, what do you thing about a new tehnology a cook with stone particules what do you thing? Thank you very much!

    • Looking at the Bisetti website, these pots and pans are made in Italy. Price looks quite high-end at US$463 for a 9 piece set of which 3 pieces are glass lids. It was first listed on Amazon in Sept 2017, but I couldn’t find any reviews since – maybe the price just isn’t attractive when you look at its competition.


      I’d be surprised if the coating contained any granite or quartz (except in token quantities, perhaps?), which seem more like a gimmick.

      The coating, from the description as being a “Mineral Surface” (see Bisetti website), sounds like a typical Ceramic Non-stick, the longevity of which will depend mainly on the supplier of the coating and the skill of the coating applicator.

      If I were you, before spending this amount of money, I’d want to wait and see what the reviews look like from a large group of users after a reasonable period on sale.

    • Hi Diane, the non-stick on All Clad d5 non-stick is provided by a 3 layer PTFE-based non-stick coating. So it is not ptfe (aka teflon type coating) free. As for cadmium, I would have no reason to believe it has any cadmium. The pan is made with 5 alternating layers of stainless steel and aluminum so I would not be worried about any cadmium leaching from it.

      • All Clad also has hybrid sauté pans where the side walls are non stick but the bottom is SS. Who makes the All Clad non stick, and how doesnDuponts Autograph 2 nonstick compare to the Quantanium and other hardened non sticks on the market?

  39. Farberware High-Performance Nonstick 15-Piece Cookware Set, Copper manufacturer #21863
    Teflon Plus? Is it better? Is it safe?

    • Hi Rich, I believe Teflon Plus is a 3 layer nonstick coating which means it is more durable and scratch resistant. More layers does mean better quality and it will last longer. As for your question about safe, my opinion is that non-stick coatings, if used with care are quite safe, so this is as safe as any other version of Teflon.

  40. I’ve read through these comments and none of them have addressed the independent research on testing foods cooked in various pots and pans made with different materials. Such as ALL nonstick coating’s leach into food. Teflon was the worst! But these other nonstick coatings did leach! (And i’m willing to guess that they didn’t cook their food at 500 or 600°F. ) Stainless steel does leach a little when it’s higher grade surgical grade. Lower grade stainless steel does leach more into the food. Pure glass leached zero amounts but they failed to mention the brands tested. (This surprised me since I’ve heard that glass contains lead, mainly from cookware salespeople) Corningware leached chemicals from the glaze as well as crock pots, especially the stuff made in china. (That saddened me since I love my crockpot but am thinking of switching the inner pot to stainless steel). But don’t take my word for this. I have spent a lot of time going over data and research, which you can do as well.

    • Hi Nevaeh, would you please share a link to the research that you mentioned where it is reported that “ALL nonstick coating’s leach into food”? From a chemist’s point of view, everything is made of something. If you have your food in contact with any surface, there will always be a small transfer of material into the food. Stainless steel will leach a small amount of metals from the surface into the food, especially when the food is acidic. Aluminum pots and pans if uncoated definitely would leach Aluminum. This is why Aluminum pots are coated: the coating acts as a protective barrier. By law, the amount of materials leaching from the metal of a food contact article and through the coating or, from the coating itself, need to be below what is called the “Permissible Limit” for “Global Migration” (i.e. sum of all different materials leaching through). You mention a certain brand of PTFE, which BTW is just one out of several PTFE brands on the market. All PTFE will give off some volatile materials as it is heated, ranging from PTFE particles at lower cooking temperatures all the way to very toxic substances (resembling World War I chemical warfare agents albeit in small amounts) when the maximum use temperature is exceeded. The low temperature emissions could be what your researchers detected in the food that they analyzed. BTW, glass and ceramic-ware are governed by strict regulations on Lead and Cadmium. True, cheap imports might not comply and may enter the market. However, if you bought a good quality ceramic-ware from a reputable shop, then I would not be unduly alarmed. Just avoid very bright glossy colors when it comes to ceramic-ware or enamel as bright red can indicate the presence of Cadmium and bright yellow is a potential warning sign for lead. Anyway, coming back to the point, I would be very interested to see the research that you mentioned. Thanks in anticipation.

  41. I was wondering if you could help me. I recently bought some Masterclass premium nonstick cookware from a discount store bc it was induction ready. It is NOT labeled PTFE (or PFOA, cadmium, or lead free). Also, I have not been able to find anything online about this product. What do your resources have to say?

    • hi Lisa, I did a quick search and here’s what I found. Masterclass cookware is a brand owned by Kitchencraft. I looked through the product listings and only their ceramic-coated pans are induction ready.
      Their teflon/ptfe coated pans are NOT induction ready. So without knowing anything more about your pans, since they are induction friendly, it could be they are ceramic-coated. Have a look at this page and see if your pans look like the ones here. https://www.kitchencraft.co.uk/brands/masterclass/cookware?page=4

  42. What about Williams-Sonoma’s Goldtouch line of products which are described as “ceramic-reinforced nonstick bakeware”? Sounds like an oxymoron. Thanks.

    • hi Meri, I’ve checked the William Sonoma website and literature and they don’t really spell it out anywhere. I’ve found that when companies use ‘ceramic-reinforced’ nonstick descriptor, it can very well be teflon or PTFE based. Best would be to contact them directly to get the right info.

  43. Thank you so much for replying to my enquiry. VERY much appreciated. I did find the following info on whitfirdww.com. Just wondering what your thoughts were on this?
    “QuanTanium for bakeware (spray version) is an internally reinforced, solvent-borne, 2-coat nonstick system. It incorporates a unique mix of titanium particles blended into the coating that stands up to almost anything. The outstanding release is provided by silicone, not PTFE. Therefore, the spray version of QuanTanium for bakeware can be marketed as “Made without PTFE/PFOA”.
    QuanTanium for Bakeware (coil version) is a two-coat, high cure, internally reinforced nonstick system engineered to resist the damaging effects of poultry fats and high-sugar-content foods with outstanding abrasion resistance. The excellent scratch resistance produced by the incorporation of titanium causes the coating to be harder and more durable than conventionally reinforced systems. QuanTanium is made without PFOA.”

    I wasn’t quite sure what to make of this. Seems it is staying the spray version is PTFE free but the coil version is not? No idea if my pans are spray or coil, so I have contacted the company, but to date have had no response.
    Again, many thanks.

    • hi Rae, I’m aware that Quantanium comes in a silicone base but ONLY for bakeware. Any coating on cookware is PTFE based to the best of my knowledge. I’m assuming your set is a cookware set (pots and pans) so it is going to be ptfe based Quantanium.

      I’ve had really good experiences with hearing back from Whitford on my queries so if you do hear back, it would be great if you can share it here!

  44. So all my brand new, Aldi hard anodised, QuanTanium non-stick cookware is still PTFE based??? And here I was thinking that because it was from Aldi, a German company, it would not be PTFE based! Can’t return it because I’ve already taken all of it out of the packaging & disposed of said packaging! But from what I can gather, based on reading all the replies, it only becomes problematic if heated to exceptionally high, unnecessary temperatures correct? So if I were to cook at a medium heat on my stove top, there should not really be any issue? I’ve avoided all non-stick cookware for decades up till now, only purchasing the Aldi QuanTanium cookware because I incorrectly believed it to be non-PTFE based. Very frustrating & potentially a lot of wasted money. Any assistance you could offer would be greatly assisted.

    • Sorry – make that “appreciated”, not “assisted”! And yes, all this information is indeed fantastic. Thankyou for taking the time to share your knowledge. They do say knowledge is power. I guess I just want to make a sound, well-informed, common-sense decision about this issue, rather than just have an ill-informed, ignorant, knee-jerk reaction.

      • hi Rae, thank you! I’m glad you find the information useful.
        And you are correct, as long as you are not overheating empty non-stick pans, I personally don’t see any issue with using a PTFE coated pan.

  45. Hello

    Fist of all I want to say you’re amazing for gathering all the information, running this site, and further sharing you knowledge/opinions with everyone here.
    Second, I do have a question myself after reading though you article and comments :)

    In reference to your response to Manny’s comment on December 3, 2015 at 9:49 am (copied below)
    “I haven’t been able to determine if it has a specific brand name but it is Calphalon’s own proprietary non-stick formulation which does use PTFE, as do most, if not all non-stick formulations.”

    Q – Does ceramic or silicon based non-stick formulation likewise still use some form of PTFE or related plastic compound? Or ceramic formulation cannot be labeled as another form of PTFE because it’s completely unrelated (e.g. chemically)? You article seems to suggest latter but I’m bit confused by “as do most, if not all non-stick formulations” part in your comment response.

    Anyway, Thanks for clarifying this for me :)

    • Hi Mat, first, thanks so much for your comment and compliment, really made my day:)
      As for your question regarding ceramic, (great question btw!), Ceramic nonstick coatings generally do not contain PTFE, it is a different formulation. I don’t know if you had a chance to read my review of ceramic non-stick coatings but that explains in more detail. I hope that helps!
      – Natalie

  46. We are buying an induction cooktop range. Do you have any comments re:
    – durability of Zwilling Energy Ceraforce products;
    – usefulness of aluminum core with a stainless steel base vs. stainless steel construction cookware on induction surfaces.

    • Hi Ken, another reader Ray asked the same question a few days ago, however I could not find any definitive information if the nonstick coating is ptfe or ceramic based. The company literature is quite vague on that info. Ray did contact the company on their Facebook page and was told (I am quoting directly from his message):
      “Power AirFryer XL is coated with professional-grade non-stick coating. It is also chemical and PTFE & PFOA free.”

      So it seems its ptfe free, at least as per this above info.

  47. Good Evening Expert!

    First, thank you for sharing such useful information! We all appreciate it. Second, is like your opinion on two cookware sets: I recently started buying Green Pan Thermolon Diamond Ceramic (made for Sur La Table) because I thought it was pretty safe/healthy, but I was recently gifted a Tramontina 3pc Ceramic Reinforced Platinum Teflon set and I’m feeling iffy about it. Do you think the Tramontina is ok to use (even though it’s pfoa-free teflon) and/or should I keep buying GreenPan Thermolon?

    Thank you!!

    • Hi there KB, thank you for your comments. My goal is just to provide information, not really to take any stand for or against Teflon. So regarding the Tramontina set, it really comes down to your personal choice. Teflon Platinum is actually quite a durable 3 layer coating and according to the manufacturer, is designed for use and abuse. Personally, I think that if used carefully (i.e. don’t go overheating empty pans), it is quite ok to use a non-stick Teflon coated pan. So I hope you are able to decide what you are comfortable with!

  48. Hello Cookware Advisor,

    What is your opinion/assessment of the Ninja 4 in 1 cooking system? My coating began to peel only because I was using metal utensils. I am going to receive a new pot soon. However, I began researching the internet about how bad non-stick pots are for you. I believe this one uses aluminum non-stick, which according the internet is very bad. So should I just send my product back? Any other multi-cookers you can recommend?

    According to this link, there is PFOA/PFTE in the Ninja cooking system pot.


    Also, what about Air Fryers? I wanted to buy the Power Air Fryer XL but that uses non-stick as well. I asked them via Facebook if their fryer was Teflon free and PFOA/PFTE free and they responded:

    “Power AirFryer XL is coated with professional-grade non-stick coating. It is also chemical and PTFE & PFOA free.” What is “professional grade non-stick coating?” They still did not advise if the fryer was ceramic or teflon.

    Thanks for any assistance you can provide.

    • Hi Ray, thanks for writing. The Ninja system you mentioned, like most nonstick coatings made nowadays, should be PFOA free.

      However, it is definitely Ptfe (i.e. teflon) based. Personally, I don’t see a problem with Teflon-type coated pans unless they are not used as per directions and are over-heated. But if such coatings are a concern for you, then by all means, return the product.

      As for the Power AirFryer, nothing in their literature reveals whether the nonstick coating is ceramic or teflon. If the company responded with ptfe and pfoa free, that would imply ceramic but I would still want it clearly stated.

  49. Hello Expert!

    We just bought JAMIE OLIVER BY T-FAL Mainstream Stainless Steel Nine-Piece Cookware Set and I’m starting to freaking out after reading your posts. My husband is a cancer survivor and I want to make sure not to be exposed to harmful chemicals that are avoidable.

    This is the description of the product. Pans seem to be just made out of stainless steal, and fry pans have this non-stick coating that I’m not sure what is about, but after reading you seems to be no good news.
    What do you recommend us in order to get know the real materials these are made of? (box or ad aren’t specific).

    Expertly crafted cookware set of five, made of sleek stainless steel with tempered glass lids. Dishwasher safe. Imported.
    Stainless steel with brushed band exterior and polished stainless steel interior
    Prometal pro non-stick coating (on frypan and sauté pan only) is metal utensil safe
    Thermo-spot heat indicator (on frypan and sauté pan only)
    Riveted stainless steel cast handles
    Tempered glass lids
    Induction compatible

    • Hello Agustina!
      This is actually quite a nice set you got and most of the pieces are Stainless Steel, which, by all accounts, is inert and safe. The question is about the saute and fry pan. Those are coated with a non-stick coating which is, yes, Teflon based. It’s a reinforced version of the coating which is quite durable and is metal utensil safe.

      So if using Teflon coated pans is an issue for you with your husbands health, you can now decide if you want to keep or return the set.
      I hope that helped!

  50. Hello, if you dont mind I have a question. I am trying to find the safest cookware to replace some Teflon pans that have started peeling. I have tried researching varies brands but have become a little overwhelmed. I found a set at Sam’s -‘Tramontina’ Porcelain enamel exterior and PFOA free ceramic reinforced nonstick coating. (USA made). I want the safest cookware not looking for cheapest but somewhat reasonable. My goal is safe!

    • Hi there …I use 316Ti cookware ..
      Saladmaster brand ..it’s the safest, cleanest …non reactive cookware you can use…
      If you want to know if your cookware leach any toxic metal ..or lead ..do the baking soda pot test…
      You boil a cup of purified water with 1 tbsp baking soda for a few minutes …using any of your pots or pans….the taste should be the same taste as the baking soda..salty..

      Then you try and taste the boiled water ..if it taste like metal or if it taste bitter ..then your pan is leaching into your food…

      Why use baking soda?
      Because baking soda is the best absorber ..it will absorb anything like bad odor or what ever is leached by your cook ware …

  51. Having a parrot in the house causes me to question everything. You have answered my concerns about Teflon, however, there’s something I haven’t seen. I have a full set of thick copperware lined with tin. The tin is intact but I did have the fry pan re-tined a few years ago. Can you tell me if there are any concerns with emissions from the tin? Also, can you address possible problems with Le Creuset cookware. Thank you for this very informative site.

    • Hi Carol, thanks for dropping by.
      This is a very interesting questions and its been on my radar to do a full analysis of copper cookware and its various lining options.

      From what I know, most copper cookware is now lined with Stainless steel but traditionally, the coating of choice was Tin. Tin is an inert substance and does not react with food nor impart any flavor. I’m not aware of any danger of emissions from tin either. The big hoopla about tin cans in recent years stemmed from the harmful BPA plastic lining, not the tin itself.

      As for LeCreuset, the only problem I hear of is people want it but its a bit expensive for them (including me, much as I would have loved to splurge!). So if you can afford, it, get it, it is worth the investment and will last for a long long time.

    • Hi Lynn, as far as I know, Bakers Secret use a proprietary non-stick formulation that is made by the company GMM Non-stick coatings. And yes, the non-stick is PTFE (aka Teflon) based.
      As for safest, I still maintain that nonstick products, if used as per instructions, are quite safe to use.
      While stainless steel is my personal #1 choice for cookware (except for eggs, must have a non-stick pan for that!), its not ideal for bakeware. If non-stick is a concern for you, you could consider silicone based bakeware.

  52. Any words of wisdom regarding the various types of stoneware, such as Stoneline, The Rock/Starfrit/Heritage, Flavorstone, Stone Earth, Stonetec, etc? These claim to be stone-based linings that are PTFE and PFOA free, and to be more resistant to heat than ceramic coatings.

    Separately, what do you think of DuraPan on Curtis Stone cookware?

    Thank you very much for sharing all your research and insights.

    • Hi Miguel,
      I am not sure these ‘stone’ cookwares are PTFE free. PFOA free, yes.
      From the Stoneline website:
      “The Stoneline coating consists of very tiny particles of stones which make the surface extremely hard. In a complex process the stone particles are combined with the non-stick coating.”
      As far as I know, this non-stick coating mentioned above is a form of PTFE. Not that I have anything against it but in all my research, I have no reason to believe it is anything but. The patented stone reinforcement makes it extra hard and extra strong.

      As for DuraPan, I believe that coating is Quantanium, which is a PTFE nonstick coating made by Whitford. The company itself gives the coating an 8 out of 10 rating. So a fairly durable nonstick coating.

    • Hi Josie, TOTAL® Food Release System is the patented nonstick system for Circulon non-stick cookware. You can read more details on my review here.

      I’m not sure where you are getting your information, but Circulon cookware does use a Dupont non-stick coating called Autograph. Most, if not all non-stick coatings are now made without the use of PFOA as per the EPA stewardship so that should not be a concern.

    • Hi Rebecca, to the best of my knowledge, the coating on the Cuisinart multicooker is Xylan by Whitford. In case you are wondering, Xylan is a ptfe based coating, very much like Teflon.

  53. still not sure about something…got a rice cooker/steamer called Aroma…called re the Teflon-looking coating inside as I have a bird. They said it is made without PFOA. Does this mean it is safe for my pet? Since it is enclosed was wondering if that made a difference…the aluminum ones I have tried tend to stick and/or burn rice on the bottom.

    • The nonstick coating is likely a kind of ‘teflon’, i.e. PTFE which, if heated to high temperatures, particularly when empty, can release fumes that are harmful for birds. In normal usage, the coating is safe as you are not burning off the plastic ptfe compound. So in my humble opinion, if you use the pot carefully and don’t overheat it you should be ok. As an extra precaution, keep the bird in a separate room, just for your peace of mind. I hope that helps.

  54. Hello, Do you have any information on the All-Clad NS1 nonstick cookware set? It only states PFOA free on the William Sonoma website.

    • Hi Rebecca, the nonstick coating is a 3 layer PTFE-based coating which is made without the use of the chemical PFOA, much like all reputable brands these days.
      I hope that helps!

      • No, that is really not all that helpful. Why I want to know is what company manufactures the nonstick coating for All-Clad. I do not trust DuPont with ANYTHING any more.

  55. Could you compare the surface durability of Scanpan and Circulon or any other induction non-stick pans suitable for metal utensils?
    I am changing to induction and have had the same set of Scanpan for 11 years with items replaced by their excellent warranty.

    • Hello Tom, I don’t think you can go wrong with either Scanpan CTX (induction compatible) or Circulon Infinite if you’re looking for an induction compatible set. Both have high quality, durable non-stick coatings which will give you years of use – Scanpan with its patented ceramic titanium infused non-stick formulation, and Circulon with its top of the line 3-layer Autograph coating. I know of users who have had the same Circulon pans for years and they still work great. Same with Scanpan. It just comes down to personal preference at this point and since you’ve enjoyed Scanpan for 11 years, I would suggest that might be the better choice for you.

  56. I’m a self taught beginner cook and I’m cooking everyday 2-3 times a day for my family. I need a really high performance, durable, and safe non-stick cookware set. Which brand do you recommend and why? Thank you much.

    • hi Gwen, i don’t know if you got a chance to check out my top 3 picks for nonstick cookware on Rachael Ray, based on value and durability. You can see how it performed better than other non-stick cookware in the grinder test in this review. I hope this helps. Good luck with your wonderful cooking!

  57. Hello, i came across Titanium Cookware Collection (made in Germany) while researching for those without toxic chemicals. They claim to be non-PFTE, -PFOA, and -PFC. Though they sound like the safest amongst several I’ve been researching, i don’t know too much about titanium – what are your thoughts? Also, they are VERY PRICEY, but if it means paying a lot up front for something that will be better for my family in the long run, then it may be worth paying that cost up front as opposed to paying large sums to doctors and hospitals if we end up sick from chemicals in our cookware. I just want to find out more though about titanium and any other thoughts you may have about this particular brand. Thanks!


    • hi BT, their website does claim there is no other non-stick surface other than titanium (which is inert and non-toxic). The prices and other users experiences seem to suggest the claims are valid. Seems like a high quality, durable line of cookware. Good luck with your decision!

    • my titanium wok is very thin metal cost about 150 dollars and is a silver gray color as were all titanium camping plates and cup I saw. Why this company has a titanium coating only and it’s black I do not know but it is suspicious.

    • Hi BT -I’ve researched too, and now own several pieces from this company which I’ve collected over a couple of years. Pricey but in a class of their own. Definitely NOT JUNK or a scam. You are right about cost up front being worth the peace of mind in avoiding chemicals and moving toward healthy options. Never used pans like this – solid and handcast makes a big difference in how it cooks, how fast, and the taste. I have learned so much about healthy cooking because the website has helpful cooking videos, recipes and so much info. Not a huge company with hundreds of order takers or anything. Can actually call and ask questions/chat. I learned to vapor cook on low with lid on the website, am rediscovering some vegetables and expanding beyond my usual routine. Here’s one: http://www.titaniumcookwarecollection.com/vapor-cooking-waterless-cooking/blog-60/ Poke around the site for more. Hope this helps.

  58. Hi, Great info thanks. What about “Infinite Circulon hard anodized with steel base”? Does the steel base mean that no aluminum comes into contact with the food, only steel?

    • Hi Steve, thanks for visiting! Yes, you are correct, the stainless steel base fully encapsulates a core of aluminum which doesn’t come into contact with food. The Circulon Infinite hard anodized is one of my favourite picks in non-stick cookware. You can read my full review here

  59. Hi There. We just purchased BergHOFF’s Eurocast fry pan, which the manufacturer says is PTFE and PFOA free. It is a cast aluminum pan with a ceramic & titatanium non-stick coating. It cooks like a dream. Just wondering if you’ve tried it or know anything about it. Thanks!

    • Hi there, I haven’t tried it but if this is the one which has Ferno ceramic, they are correct in saying its ptfe and pfoa free since it is a ceramic based non-stick coating. So far, it has received very good reviews by users and your comments validate that. All the best with it!

  60. Thank you so, so much for all your diligent work in answering my question. I never heard back from Whitford, so I was happy to hear that you had. I got nowhere with Cuisinart, either by phone or through their “Contact Us” email address. Amazon was not able to help me. I had even spoken with them again after receiving another email to contact them about the matter.

    I decided to return the product. I will have to find one with ceramic plates or just buy 2 separate products for my stove – one grill & one griddle. I would never take the risk.

    I honestly can’t thank you enough for all your help. I am so glad that I found this site. I will be referring to it often. I have already recommended it to several friends.

    Hopefully, the information you received will help others who have similar questions. I definitely learned quite a bit, mostly from this site (and you, in particular).

    Thank you again for all your time, hard work, and genuine concern about finding an answer to my question. It was very important for me to get an accurate answer and I know you understood that.


  61. What does that mean by 2 or 3 layer?. Or are there 2 or 3 kind of layers to apply. How can we diferenciate the 1st, second and third?

    • Hi Wondwosen, you don’t really need to differentiate the layers, just make sure you buy a good brand. The number of layers of non-stick is one of the determining factors in the quality of a non-stick coating. Better quality cookware has 2 or 3 layers, sometimes up to 7, which gives the non-stick better durability.

  62. Thank you so much for all the time you spent answering my question. I thought it was just me but now I see why I was confused. You explained it very well! Until I get a definite answer, I am not going to use it. It’s not worth taking the chance with my birds.

    I spent over an hour yesterday researching after I wrote the message. I did come across the same types of information that you did. I’ve read that Xylan can be made from PTFE or silicone. And I also, like I said, read your responses to all the questions above. The confusion came in because the other questions regarding Xylan were in reference to cookware or bakeware. This Griddler seems to be in it’s own category.

    Thank you in advance for any additional information you can find. I will also try to continue to contact them as well. Thank you again for such a detailed and prompt response. I really appreciate it!

    • Hi Kristen, I heard back from Whitford for this specific product. Pasting below, but essentially it IS ptfe based….
      So we have our definitive answer. I will forward the email to you in its entirety too.

      “Thank you for contacting Whitford. The Xylan Plus system used on the Cuisinart GR-4NR 5-in-1 Griddler is a PTFE based system.

      Xylan is the umbrella trademark for most of our products, and was the first brand offered by Whitford. It has become the world’s most extensive family of coatings and can be silicone based or PTFE based. In this case, a PTFE system was used, most likely to meet a specific performance requirement.

      The Xylan family of coatings is designed to suit a wide range of applications, offering one-, two-, and three-coat options, with a coating option for virtually every price and performance level. Xylan can be used for cookware, bakeware, small electrics and any other housewares product that needs a nonstick coating.”
      Suzie Eberhardt, Whitford Corporation • Associate Retail Marketing Manager

  63. Hi, I just purchased the Cuisinart 5-in-1 Griddler. The model number is GR-4N. I did research and it said the plates were free of PTFE. I purchased from Amazon and read all the information on the product. I read everything that came with the Griddler (manual, etc) from front to back or cover to cover.

    I called Cuisinart. The Cuisinart rep said the non-stick plates are free of PTFE and made of “Die Cast Aluminum with a coating of Xylan”. The quotes are her exact words. I am extremely concerned about harmful chemicals and fumes because I own 2 parrots.
    I saw all the prior posts about Xylan, but I am still a bit confused. The Cuisinart rep told me that the Griddler is free of any PTFE. However, I read that Xylan contains PTFE. I am confused!

    Can you please clarify this for me? Does Xylan contain PTFE? Is this Griddler safe to use if I have parrots? Again, I was told the non-stick plates are “Die Cast Aluminum with a coating of Xylan.” Is this product safe to use if I have parrots? I am very concerned and afraid to use it until I know. I am only concerned with whether it is safe to use if I parrots anywhere in the house. This is the actual link to the product if that helps.

    Thank you! And thank you for all the helpful information on this page, as well as on the links you provide.


    • Hi Kristen, this is quite interesting and I totally understand your concerns about your parrots but I don’t have a definitive answer. In the past when I’ve contacted Whitford about Xylan, I was told that Xylan for cookware is PTFE based but they also make Xylan for bakeware in which case the non-stick release is provided by silicone.

      If they are telling you that this griddle is PTFE free, then it is very possibly that this uses a silicone based Xylan for non-stick but I wouldn’t be 100% sure and there is always a chance that the rep who told you just didn’t know the difference.

      I will make an attempt to contact Whitford and see if I can get a definitive answer but till then I would advise you to err on the side of caution.
      Thanks for reaching out and here’s to hoping we can get a clear answer!

  64. Hi, I’m a husband so understand I know practically nothing when it comes to the Kitchen. Here’s my problem: While my wife was at work I put her Rachael ran frying pan on her glass top cooking range with a jar of honey that had turned to sugar, I put about 2 inches of water in the pan and turned it on high inner circle burner, then I forgot about it and left to go get my wife from work, we returned home some 3 hours later to find the house full of smoke, the stove on, and the pan dry with honey in the jar and in the pan burned to a crisp. My wife says throw the pan away, she said it’s ruined, I can’t visibly see anything wrong with it, should I throw it away, return it to the manufacturer or just keep it?

    • Hi John, thanks for submitting a very interesting question!
      In a nutshell, I agree with your wife. In 3 hours, the non-stick coating would have all but vapourized, leaving a plain aluminum pan. Mind you, it is hard anodized aluminum and won’t leach into food but what’s probably left of the coating is a burnt plastic and you don’t want to risk that contaminating your food.
      At least that’s my two cents worth. Good luck!

    • Hi there, if you’re asking if Calphalon nonstick cookware has a PTFE (Teflon) coating, the answer is yes. They use their own proprietary PTFE formulation which is applied in 3 layers. I haven’t been able to determine what brand of ‘teflon’ but nevertheless it is like Teflon.

  65. What does X Teflon mean ?? is it a harder surface than when it says just Teflon being highly sensitive to plastics I would like to know. I understand the high temperatures are dangerous but that wouldn’t happen in a bread making machine Thankyou for your help this is what is stated on the Panasonic Bread Maker SD2501

    • Hi Lorraine, I haven’t heard of Teflon X, and the list of Teflon line extensions in the article above is a pretty comprehensive one. It could be referring to Teflon Xtra, which is just one level above Teflon Classic, the basic coating.

      The thing to note is that the different qualities of the Teflon brand are based on 1. Number of layers of nonstick coating 2. Thickness of the coating. The number of layers and thickness of the layers improves the durability of the nonstick but it is still plastic and will behave the same under high temperatures.

      In the case of a breadmaker, you are right, high temperatures are unlikely so in that sense you really have nothing to worry about. However if you have other sensitivities to plastic then I leave that to you to decide what is best for you.

      Thanks for stopping by, I hope I was able to help a bit.

  66. Thank you for creating a useful site with good information. Getting kind of tired of reading through all the misinformation and FUD about this topic from people who think being good at cooking suddenly makes them material scientists.

  67. We’ve a fine parrot in the household now, so I bend over backwards not to have any PTFE in the kitchen wares. Trouble is, I was gifted a Bundtlette pan from Nordicware. It’s an older model, (not pictured on the website). It looks like 6 small Bundts, the coloring is black. I’ve never used it, not knowing if it contains PTFE. Could you help?

    • Hi Melinda, I am not personally familiar with these pans however if you check the website for Nordicware, they claim that all non-stick their bakeware is free of PTFE and PFOA. According to them, “an entirely different formulation is necessary to release sugars (associated with baking) than proteins (associated with meats and dairy)”.

      If you are still unsure, you might want to call their customer service line to get confirmation as I’m sure you want the peace of mind of knowing your pet is safe.
      I hope that helps!

  68. I bought a cookie sheet from Gourmet Pro David Burke Commercial Bakeware that is steel coated in Xylan.

    On the Xylan seal is a green leaf that reads “made without PFOA and PTFE”.

    Your article says Xylan has PTFE and is a mediocre non stick surface.


    • Hello Bree, thanks for your question.
      The Xylan in the article refers to Xylan for cookware. And the non-sticks rating is directly from the company Whitford. Now, to answer your question, the company also makes Xylan for bakeware, however in this case, the nonstick release is provided by silicone, not PTFE. So that is why your bakeware has the label which reads made without PFOA and PTFE.
      I hope that helped clarify!

  69. Hi,

    Thank you for such informative article.

    Have you had or got more details on Neoflam and it’s non-stick-ceramic coating?

    I switched from teflon to ceramic non-stick cookware, and most of them after some use lost the non-stick capabilities and made cooking more challenging.

    After your write-up I’m reconsidering teflon or neoflam, but I’m just concerned about the durability.

    Do you have any advice?

    • Hi Wai Yee Wong, thank you for your comment!
      Neoflam with its Ecolon coating is a decent pan and starts out with great nonstick properties, but in my research I found that like all other ceramic nonstick coatings, it wears off soon enough.
      Personally I am a fan of using a basic teflon pan for my nonstick needs. A good basic teflon pan has a nonstick life of 1-2 years which, in my books, is ok! I also find Scanpan a good choice, its pricier but lasts longer (with proper care). You can read my review here. I hope that helps.

  70. I just bought a set of Olympia Xylan pots and pans. I am worried about this product’s toxicity. Is it aluminum and is it toxic to cook with even at low heats?

    • Hi Janet, thanks for stopping by.
      I don’t think you need to worry too much. Almost all coated cookware is aluminum based. Xylan is applied mainly to aluminum cookware and steel cookware in the case of woks. In all likelihood your pans are aluminum based. The coating Xylan, like any other PTFE based coating is fine up to medium temperatures so you really shouldn’t worry as long as you use the pans with proper care.

  71. I have a Xylan plus (double coating according to Whitford’s website) which also has an icon label on it saying ceramic. Is this one a PTFE based or ceramic based coating. Or if what they mean by ceramic, is for the outer surface of the cookware that touches the stove top?

    Also I’d like to note that I cannot find any Whitford label or name on it.

    Is this Xylan plus sauce pan a cheap Chinese imitation of Whitford Xylan?

    Product name is Ecko Fuego
    Distributed by WORLD KITCHEN, LLC
    Made in china

    Thanks alot!

    • Hello Ryan, Xylan is the umberella brand for the non-stick coating made by Whitford and Xylan plus refers to 2-coat and 3-coat applications of Xylan. The non stick release on Xylan coated Cookware is definitely provide by PTFE. I don’t know this brand but the ceramic on your pan most likely refers to the outer surface.
      Thanks for stopping by and I hope that helped!

  72. What about non-stick baking pans, such as EKCO’s “Baker’s Secret” or “Eckoloy” brands? Do these contain and potentially release flouride compounds? Thanks!

    • Hello M, I’m not familiar with EKCO or Eckology but many of the bakeware from the brand Bakers Secret has a silcone non stick which means its free of PTFE.

  73. I am using The Rachel Ray Brand pots specifically the 8 qt hard enamel covered pasta pot……
    It actually came with a warning about having the PTFE in it and being careful around pet/esp birds…..it does not say anything about being free of PFOA and I was curious on what you could actually cook in it because of not going over 500 degrees..for exaple I would like to make sauce in it and meatballs….plus if I use it for pasta boing it for at least the avg of 10 min what is the temp then ….very scary we also have an infant in the house !

    • Great question Lorraine.
      According to my findings, the use of PFOA in non-stick coatings, including the one on Rachael Ray pots, is limited to the process by which non-stick coatings are applied and there is not much left with the final product. Additionally the use of PFOA should have been phased out by end 2015 as per the Environmental Protection Agency’s stewardship program. So i would put that concern to rest.

      As for PTFE and high temperatures, as an easy guideline, think of this: water boils at a temperature of 212 F. Which means your boiling pasta would be around that temperature. And most other cooking is also done at temperatures well below the PTFE breaking point of 500F.

      So it is reasonable to assume that as long as you are careful and not leaving an empty non-stick pan on the stove for an extended period, there is little risk of the PTFE coating breaking down and emitting harmful fumes for birds… or babies!
      Hope that puts your mind at ease!

  74. i was given a Ninja 4 in 1 for a gift. It is lovely and I love how it cooks. But can’t find out WHAT the insert is made of… do you happen to know? This appliance can heat to high temps (pretty sure up to 500 as it works as a fryer too…) so would you suggest trading it in for something ceramic (like an old school crock pot?)

    • Hi Kim, its really a personal preference between non stick and ceramic.
      The insert in this product is metal if I’m not mistaken, which means the non-stick coating is likely to be some form of PTFE. The temperature limit for using the Ninja 4 in 1 is up to 425 F. PTFE or Teflon doesn’t deteriorate till it reaches 500 F. So unless its really a personal preference or a major concern for you, I would suggest you are quite ok using this cooker. Let me know what you think!

  75. I am thrilled to find your very informative site!

    I am wondering about Tramontina brand cookware. They are the only brand lately that I have found that say they are made in the USA, but it seems you have to be very careful when shopping sites like Amazon to read the fine print as some of their products are made in Brazil and assembled and packaged in the USA, but it’s difficult at times to determine or understand what the cookware is actually coated with.

    • Hi Sue, I’m glad you found the information useful!

      The other brand I know of that’s made in USA is All Clad (except for the lids).

      As for non-stick coating, I don’t know which line of the Tramontina cookware you are considering as they have several. However, as a general rule of thumb, if its an aluminum pan with a non-stick finish, you can be rest assured that the non-stick release is provided by some form of PTFE (aka a kind of ‘Teflon’).

      Hope that helps!

  76. Thank you for the thorough information!
    I generally do not use non-stick in my house, but my husband accidentally purchased baking sheets for me that are coated. We are having a difficult time finding the type of coating that is used on them. They are Chicago Metallic’s Commercial II dual coated non-stick small cookie/jelly roll pans.
    After a call to the company, we were told that the coating is proprietary (so they won’t tell us exactly) but stated that they are PFOA and PTFE free. Can you tell me more about them?
    Thanks so much!

    • Hello Heidi, thank you for the comments! While I’m not too familiar with that brand, here’s what I’ve been able to find out.

      These particular Chicago Metallic pans are made with aluminized steel with a non-stick coating.

      Most, if not all, metallic non-stick bakeware is made non-stick with some form of PTFE coating.

      According to their literature, they use a ‘coil coating’ process which means the rolled metal is coated evenly at peak temperatures with a high quality PTFE coating. Each pan is then formed from a quality-assured coil-coated roll.

      So to answer your question, it is very likely some form of PTFE that is coating those pans and the customer service rep was misinformed. Chicago metallic does offer an un-coated line but this is obviously coated.

      Check this info I found: http://www.greenfieldworld.com/2006ecatalog/all%20vendors/chicagometallic.pdf

      Hope this helped!

  77. Hello,
    Thank you so much for this great site.
    I have been researching all kinds of slow cookers/crock pots being sold to date. The reviews on them seem to be varied.
    I am considering buying the Cuisinart MSC 600 3 in 1 multi slow cooker.
    I live in Canada and was told by Conair/Cuisinart Canada that this product’s non-stick aluminum vessel insert is a Whitford product.
    I was told by Cuisinart staff that they could not disclose what the material is made from as a result of privacy issues.
    I find rather frustrating and upsetting. To me that is just not acceptable.
    We consumers should be privy to this kind of information. It is quite apparant that this kind of information is very hard to obtain given all the time I have spent on this.
    In fact the customer service rep I spoke with did not readily know about the cooker’s non-stick finish…… put me on hold to find out from someone else and came back with the privacy issue statement.
    I am not trying to copy and make a slow cooker pot. I am just a consumer interested in getting one…..who wants to be assured about the lining’s safety. Anyway that is what I was told.
    However, she did tell me it is BPA free. She never mentioned lead free but I would imagine it is (hope so)!
    I contacted a manager at Whitford by email and was told that they would get back to me to CONFIRM that it is a Whitford coating vessel by another staff member who knows all about it.
    I was told though that it definitely does have PFTE but no PFOA. Told that PFTE is definitely safe!
    I haven’t heard back from Whitford as yet after a couple of weeks of waiting for the confirmaltion.
    Also told by a customer service rep at Cuisinart that this 6 quart cooker is being discontinued in the US but not in Canada to date. This concerns me as well. Why?
    I see that it is still being sold in the US on Ebay, Amazon etc. etc. and yet no mention of it being a discontinued product.
    I was curious what will be taking its place in the US once all cookers have been sold, wrote to Cuisinart US and never heard back from them!
    I like the fact that this slow cooker has the saute/brown feature that one cooks right in the cooker itself and is not an on the stove cooking pot I read could crack??
    Albeit heard this cooker’s lining has been known to bubble and flake off even with careful use of the non-stick finish but not harmful if one consumes some of these particles.
    Are you familiar with this particular slow cooker and what your opinion is especially about the vessel itself.
    I could look into cookers that have the Ceramic based non-stick coatings that perhaps have Sol-Gel technology given you mentioned it seems a safe product.
    I read unfavourable reviews on ceramic type pots that they are not as durable, known to crack etc. Also Wondering if some may contain lead,
    To reiderate, my main concern is worrying about having harmful chemicals leach into the food being slow cooked.
    I am not sure I will ever be satisfied with a slow cooker given my concerns about PFTE etc. etc. However, perhaps you can allay some of them.
    Thank you

    • Hello Deena, first of all, thank you for taking the time to read this article and to comment on it.

      Now to your concerns about chemicals leaching. Most non-stick coatings have PTFE. That is a given. To the best of my knowledge PTFE (aka Teflon) is an inert substance if ingested by the body and will pass through harmlessly. So personally I wouldn’t be worried about that.
      My concern would be durability. In my experience, after some time, ALL non-stick pans I have ever owned stop working. They either peel or wear out. Given that a slow cooker is on for hours at a time, it is very possible this would happen sooner in a non-stick coated slow cooker.

      So if non-stick coating leeching into food is an issue with the Cuisinart slow cooker you are looking at, I wouldn’t be worried about it. On a separate note I’ve always had a ceramic slow cooker (with no non-stick coating) and really, have had no issues with durability or cracking or clean up for that matter. I hope this helps. Let us know what you decide.

  78. Hi just bought a set of CROFTON (Aldi) chefs collection ‘professional’ range,but a little disappointed to see Whitford Xylan only getting a 4/5 out of 10 as theyr pans retail at £16.99 each. They are also Aluminum based and would like to know how ‘safe’ Aluminum is nowadays as thought this product was banned at one stage in cooking vessels?

    • Hi Simon, you will find that most coated cookware is aluminium based and to the best of my research, there has been no definitive health hazard with aluminium cookware. Also because of the coating, food doesn’t come in contact with aluminium anyway so I wouldn’t be too worried.

  79. I have been doing an extensive research on fry pans, and I am still not sure.
    I found 2 that I am wondering if is safe to use or not.
    They are 1. New T-Fal hard titanium non-stick coatings, sans PFOA/Plomb/Cadmium, recyclable product, made in China 2. Ipac (passione italiana) graphite non-stick ceramic with Exdura Green II ceramic coating, PFOA/PTFE free, made in China.
    Thank you for your response.

    • Hi Akemi,
      I am not a big fan of coated ceramic simply because they have not found to be durable. Also there is also some reports of lead or cadmium leechig from non-stick coatings on ceramic, though if you read my review of ceramic coated cookware (Click here) I’ve found those claims to be largely unsubstantiated for established companies operating in the USA.

      Titanium on the other hand is one of the highest quality non-stick coatings and while its made of PTFE, my research says that PTFE (Teflon) if ingested, is inert and passed through the body harmlessly.
      So my vote would be the Tfal Titanium. Thanks for reading and I hope that helped!

      • Cookware Advisor, I’m not a scientist and realize you are trying to be objective, but keep tis in mind . . . . the product manufacturer don’t disclose the latent (long term) harm of their products for business reasons.
        PTFE, as a complex compound, is essentially “boiled off” and ingested — no one has an idea what “new” form PTFE has become (even steak & chicken, after cooking, is molecularly changed) — why wouldn’t PTFE aft 300-400 degrees? The great “new car” smell is chemical compounds being released — how people covet this smell is beyond comprehension. Like PFOA (see below), PTFE is found in hair samples.
        Therefore, I don’t agree with you that PTFE passes through the body – – no one on the “consumer” side has the money or resources to boil PTFE, ingest it, and look for it in small quantities in human urine, feces, sweat, etc. which is the only way it is discharged from our bodies (all food is used by the body or kept as fat, tissue, etc.).

        With PFOA, we know it’s bad, and has been suppressed by manufacturers — Dupont and others have scientists who job is to dispel any position against PFOA (a group of “merchants of doubt” made famous in the Climate Change area.) The scientific evidence is that it is NEVER discharged – – hair samples prove that PFOA doesn’t pass through the body.

        The basic issue is not that whether it is “safe”, but whether we “eat” it in a quantity that knowingly caused us harm (carcinogen), and whether it is used in a way that causes environmental harm (like fertilizer run-off to drains).
        Let me mention another “teflon” matter — cell phone electro magnetic radiation. It is WELL ESTABLISHED that cell phone EMR (same principle as high voltage transmission wires), that EMR causes damage to your facial skin cells as you hold the phone against your ear — but in small exposure times, you body will regenerate. People using their phone (as a phone, not a play thing) for long periods will suffer more damage than they can overcome (like sun exposure to skin). The FCC requires every phone to be registered showing i’s radiation pattern and output tests – you can google your phone for the registered pattern.

        • Thanks for your comment Tony. I’m not a scientist either, and like you said, try not to take sides or start a debate. All I do is research, compile and present available information. In this case info that is pertinent to cookware and cooking with that cookware.
          I do appreciate and welcome your input and point of view though. Thanks again.

  80. Tramontina Lyon cookware says that it is a “four layer ceramic reinforced nonstick”. The literature that comes with the pans shows an aluminum base covered with three different ceramic layers and then a (food contact) “food release nonstick topcoat” – what is that? It looks / feels like PTFE. Does a ceramic nonstick topcoat look/feel like PTFE? I am trying to find non PTFE cookware that is still nonstick. Thanks for this informative article.

  81. I have a Martha Stewart collection of non-stick of porcelain enamel cookware, with no info about its chemical makeup? How do I find out this info re: safety?

  82. Follow up to my previous comment:

    I shared the article with my parents and we are having a tough time finding out about their circulon pots and pans. My best guess is they are from the late 90s. My mom says it is just anondized and the rings that make it “non-stick” whereas I believe there is a coating on there (that I am seeing flake off slightly). Any insight? Would Calphalon (I believe they manufacture circulon?) give me more information directly?

    Thanks again!

    • Hi Lauren, thanks for the information link and your question. Circulon pots are made by Meyer, who also make Anolon, Rachel Ray, Faberware to name a few. They definitely use a coating which is made by the same company that makes Teflon (R). According to the company, its a much harder, more durable, 3 layer coating. And yes its hard anodized as are most non-sticks.

      The nonstick coating is applied in a unique “Hi-Low” ring design that reduces surface abrasion by allowing only a portion of food and utensils to touch. That’s the reason for the rings so I would say you are right, its ALL coated! Hope that helps.
      I’ve found Meyer very helpful in answering questions in case you want to call and get more information, just Google for their phone number.
      Warm regards!

  83. I came across this website after doing research on the pans my parents have (circulon, bought in the late 90s). What prompted the research was the following article that I thought you might enjoy and might want to link to. Chemicals extremely similar to PFOA are now being used instead, which means that this cookware STILL might not be much safer. It’s up to everyone to decide what is right for them, but I definitely believe everyone should have the correct information to base those decisions on. Thanks for all the time and research.


  84. Hi there, I liked this article, it is simple and comprehensive.
    I don’t use any coated cookwares, I use only stainless steel ones, but when it come to muffin pans , it is hard or impossible to find stainless steel.
    I have a cheap muffin pan which has a chrome color paint , like metal car paints . My question is that paint or coating a PTFE please? otherwise I have to buy an expensive ceramic coated pan, like US pan brand.
    Thank you

    • Hi Michel, its hard to say without seeing the pan but I doubt if its paint. It could be an aluminium pan if it is a metallic color.

  85. thank you for your valuable contribution. I am concerned about Calphalon Contemporary…they only say PFOA free, so based on your article, it is PTFE. I just want something safe…Calphalon is not specific as to what they use…I have gone everywhere but not able to use the name of the coating. Your help will be much appreciated. Manny

    • Hi Manny, you are correct, it is a form of PTFE. I haven’t been able to determine if it has a specific brand name but it is Calphalon’s own proprietary non-stick formulation which does use PTFE, as do most, if not all non-stick formulations. PTFE has proven to be harmless and inert in the human body so in my opinion, safety is only a concern if you heat these pans to over 660F which doesn’t happen in the normal range of cooking, frying or baking.

  86. This is extremely helpful, I haven’t been able to find such a comprehensive explanation anywhere about non-stick coatings. It seems that most good non-stick pans have some sort of PTFE coating then.

  87. Thanks for asking Lillie Pans made with Thermolon (Green Pans) do not coinatn Teflon, which has been proven to be fatal for birds. All the research looks good that Thermolon is safe, but the technology is so brand new, there may be things they just don’t know yet. To be on the safe side with your bird, keep him away from the proximity of any possible fumes when you are cooking, and don’t heat your pans above 450 degrees. There are also some good discussions on some of the bird owners blogs. Hope this helps.


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