Wondering about Aluminum Cookware? Here’s an interesting fact…
According to the Cookware Manufacturers Association, aluminum cookware sales accounted for almost 60% of all cookware sold in the USA in 2015.
So basically, more than half of us are using aluminum cookware. Yet we don’t seem to know enough about it. Not a day goes by when I don’t get a query about aluminum cookware or a request to do an in-depth review. Questions like:
– What is anodized aluminum?
– What is hard anodized aluminum?
– Difference between hard anodized aluminum and non-stick cookware?
And the overriding question: Is aluminum cookware safe?
My goal is to have answers to all those questions by the end of this article. And more.
So let’s get started.
Why use aluminum?
Aluminum is a great conductor of heat which makes it an ideal choice for cookware. Here’s a table so you can see how Aluminum compares to other metals. The thermal conductivity of metals is measured in w/m.k or watts per meter-kelvin. Aluminum has a thermal conductivity that is 16 times that of stainless steel.
What that means for you is that Aluminum will heat up quickly, evenly and 16 times faster than a stainless steel pot!
|Cast Iron:||80 W/m.K|
|Stainless Steel:||14.2 W/m.K|
Aluminum is also the third most abundant element in nature. Read ‘cheaply available’. Which means aluminum cookware is generally affordable. Plus it’s lightweight. It’s no wonder we favor Aluminum cookware over all others.
The problem with Aluminum is…
Aluminum reacts with acidic food which causes the metal to leach into the food. Because of that, you will find that most of the aluminum cookware that is available is either coated with a non-stick layer or is anodized.
What is anodized aluminum?
Ok, time for some chemistry 101. If you leave aluminum exposed to the air, it will naturally form a thin layer of aluminum oxide on the surface. While this layer is very thin, it is strong and hard. It prevents the metal from further oxidation by forming a barrier between the aluminum and the air. Scientist call this process ‘passivation’… meaning it makes the metal passive vs reactive.
As a matter of interest, both sapphires and rubies are gems made of aluminum oxide (different colors). Because of its hardness, aluminum oxide is also used as a commercial abrasive.
Now in order to make the layer of aluminum oxide thicker, the metal is subjected to an electrochemical process called anodization. This forms a much thicker layer of the non-reactive aluminum oxide, creating what is known as anodized or hard-anodized aluminum.
Is anodized aluminum the same as hard anodized aluminum?
While both imply a layer of aluminum oxide on the surface of the metal, there is a difference. Hard anodized is, in simple terms, an even thicker layer of aluminum oxide than regular anodized. The resulting metal has twice the strength of stainless steel and is durable, non-reactive and resistant to corrosion and abrasion.
Can hard anodized aluminum peel off?
The layer of aluminum oxide in anodized aluminum is not like paint or a coating but is completely fused into the base metal. Meaning it’s a part of it. This means that it cannot peel away or chip off.
By some accounts, it’s also almost as hard as diamond. This is why it does a great job of preventing scratches and exposing the aluminum core inside.
Is hard anodized aluminum non-stick?
By its nature, hard anodized aluminum is low stick, not totally non-stick. Most hard anodized aluminum pans today are coated with a non-stick coating.
What’s the difference between hard anodized and non-stick?
Hard anodized cookware is made of aluminum that has been anodized to form a hard, durable layer. It may or may not have a non-stick coating on it.
Anodized aluminum was initially developed by Calphalon in 1968 for professional chefs. It was developed in response to the demanding requirements of chefs in professional kitchens. Calphalon Commercial Hard Anodized line was later made available to the public in 1976 so that home cooks could also enjoy this type of cookware. However this product is no longer available and has been replaced with traditional non-stick coated cookware.
Non-stick aluminum cookware is aluminum cookware with a non-stick coating. The non-stick coating can be PTFE based (i.e like Teflon) or Ceramic based. It may or may not be hard anodized aluminum.
A quick look on Amazon shows that a non-stick pan with hard anodized aluminum generally costs more than a non-stick pan with plain aluminum. And yet, despite the extra cost, I would always recommend choose a non-stick pan or set that is hard anodized vs. plain aluminum. Here’s why:
Firstly, hard-anodized aluminum goes through an extra process that makes it much harder, stronger and scratch resistant than plain aluminum. This means you get a much more durable pan due to the outstanding toughness of the hard anodized surface.
Secondly, a non-stick coating applied to a hard anodized aluminum pan lasts much longer than a plain aluminum pan. In fact, according to Circuloncanada.ca, when an abrasion test was performed on a hard anodized aluminum surface and a plain aluminum surface with the same quality of non-stick coating, the hard anodized material proved 3 times more durable!
Lastly, in the case of hard anodized, even if the non-stick coating wears off or scratches, the food will not be exposed to plain aluminum. Aluminum, as we know by now, reacts with some foods, particularly acidic foods, leaching the metal into the cooking. Hard anodized, on the other hand, is quite non-reactive.
So in conclusion, shell out the extra bucks for a hard anodized non-stick. From my personal experience, you’ll get a much longer lasting non-stick pan.
What are the different types of aluminum cookware and best options for each?
When it comes to aluminum cookware you have 5 main options. Here are some details about each and a suggestion for best option:
This is aluminum that is not hard anodized and has no coating. It is not widely available anymore in North America due to its reactive nature with food. But there are still some limited options like this Cajun cookware aluminum Dutch oven
Also if you are in the market for a pressure cooker, some of the best stove top options are plain aluminum.
Plain aluminum with ceramic nonstick coating
The most notable option in this category is Caraway cookware. This is one of my favorite cookware sets and one that I use quite regularly in my day to day cooking.
Caraway cookware is made of heavy gauge aluminum with a stainless steel base so it can also be used with induction cooktops. The company also follows eco-friendly production methods which is why they prefer plain aluminum vs hard anodized. You can read more about them in my complete review. Or buy here.
Plain aluminum with Teflon/PTFE nonstick coating.
This is a good budget option, like a T-fal set.
The aluminum in a set like this does not go through the hardening and strengthening process that anodized aluminum goes through. But you can still get a few good years if you treat it with proper care.
Hard anodized aluminum with ceramic nonstick coating
This is an excellent option if you are looking for aluminum cookware with a non Teflon nonstick surface. Best option is GreenPan
Hard anodized aluminum with Teflon/PTFE nonstick coating
If you read the section above, we’ve seen that a hard anodized aluminum nonstick pan is likely to last 3 times longer than a plain aluminum nonstick coated pan. So you might want to pay a little extra and go for a hard anodized pan if you are looking for a regular Teflon type nonstick.
My all time favorite in this category is the Rachael Ray hard anodized aluminum cookware.
Which is better? Ceramic or Teflon/PTFE coated aluminum cookware?
Simple answer: Depends – on your cooking style, type of cooking and personal preference. As the Cookware Advisor, we don’t offer a pro or anti stance for any one type, just information to help you decide.
Both types have pros and cons. While ceramic coated cookware is more heat resistant and does not disintegrate and release fumes at high heat, Teflon tends to be a better and more durable nonstick. For a complete guide, read my article on Ceramic vs Teflon to find out which one is best for you.
And now the raging debate : Is aluminum cookware safe?
Disclaimer: since this is a sensitive subject for many people I want to make it clear that I have no intention of trying to change anyone’s opinion. My sole purpose is to share what I have researched and to lay it out. If it makes sense to you, great. If not, that’s OK too. Get a stainless steel or copper set.
There are actually two parts to this question: 1. Does aluminum leach into food from cookware? 2. Is aluminum safe?
Let’s tackle them one at a time.
Does aluminum leach into food from cookware?
The concise answer: not much!
It’s important to keep in mind that most aluminum cookware is either coated with non-stick, is hard anodized or even stainless steel clad (e.g. Cuisinart MCP). In all these cases, food is not directly in contact with plain aluminum, so chances of leaching are very low.
Now we come to plain aluminum pans, which most of us are not using anyway. According to NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), cooking in aluminum containers results in small but unimportant increases in the aluminum content of foods.
Livestrong.com references a study that was published in the “Journal of Food Protection” which estimates that cooking in aluminum pans or foil can add about 3.5 mg aluminum to the daily intake. Given that most people consume an average of 1-10mg of aluminum daily from natural sources, this amount would not be enough to constitute a health hazard.
Further, in an independent lab test done by Cook’s Illustrated (America’s Test Kitchen) in 2012, it was found that tomato sauce (an acidic food) that was cooked in an aluminum pan for 2 hours and then stored in the same pan overnight contained only 0.0024 mg of aluminum per cup.
As a point of comparison, some common over-the-counter antacids have more than 100 mg of aluminum in a single dose.
Update 2021 – A question from one of my readers made me dig into the question of leaching in a new aluminum pan vs an old one. Does an older pan leach more aluminum into food vs a newer one?
Keep in mind we’re talking about an uncoated pan (the kind you’d find in a pressure cooker, for example). Research suggests that an older pan will leach more (more than double) aluminum than a newer one when used for cooking the same kind and quantity of food (in this case it was rice). However, the amount of aluminum that leaches into the food was found to still be within acceptable levels and not enough to be considered a health hazard.
- Aluminum does not leach into food from coated or anodized aluminum cookware.
- The amount that leaches from untreated aluminum cookware is not enough to cause a health hazard.
Which brings me to the second part of the question:
Is aluminum safe?
Let’s see, we’ve established that most aluminum cookware is either coated, anodized or clad. This means food is not in direct contact with the metal.
If you are among the minority using plain aluminum cookware, the amount of metal leaching seems to be negligible. This would also apply to non-stick aluminum pans that have a worn or scratched Teflon or ceramic coating.
So that makes it pretty safe, in my opinion.
And while 60% of us are using some form of aluminum cookware, the myth that aluminum cookware causes Alzheimer’s lives on.
Let’s go back to the birth of that myth. Some decades ago, in the study of a deceased Alzheimer’s patient, it was discovered that his brain had an unusually high concentration of aluminum. Since then, aluminum was linked to Alzheimer’s and aluminum pots and pans were vilified as possible culprits.
The connection between Alzheimer’s and aluminum has been debunked many times since then. In fact, according to the Alzheimer’s society:
“there is no convincing evidence that aluminum increases a person’s risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.”
FDA reports that aluminum does not cause Alzheimer’s disease and the use of aluminum products does not harm health.
Lastly, according to Dr. David Perlmutter, renowned neurologist and bestselling author of Grain Brain, brain disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, are caused by excess consumption of carbohydrates and grains.
Not aluminum cookware.
With that, I rest my case. To me, aluminum cookware is safe.
If you’re still troubled by the idea of using aluminum cookware, do yourself a favor. Choose stainless steel.
Cookware Advisor pick for top two favorite aluminum cookware options:
- Ceramic coated (ptfe/pfoa free): Caraway Cookware
- Ptfe (Teflon type) coated: Rachael Ray Hard Anodized NonStick Cookware
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Disclosure: I get commissions for purchases made through links in this post.